What connected the writers, thinkers, and social reformers who belonged to the American transcendentalist movement of the 1830s-50s? Despite their use of religious language, the answer is a thoroughly secular world view. For most of these figures, human flourishing was the goal of all human culture. A similar goal pervades their twentieth and twenty-first century heirs. For a few transcendentalists like Thoreau, however, even human flourishing was not enough. For him and for his followers like Annie Dillard, transcendental “flourishing” must include the entire cosmos, the more-than human, material world.